Viral-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

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Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-recognized problem that is regularly observed after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The published data does not report on the potential risk factors for the viral-induced HC that might require prophylactic treatments.


We conducted a retrospective analysis of all adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at Jules Bordet Institute between 1992 and 2013. Our institutional protocol consists in monitoring the patient for signs and symptoms of HC on a daily basis during the initial admission for HSCT, then once weekly after discharge until 2 months thereafter.


HC was found in 64 patients, of whom 56 (87.5%) had viral-induced HC. The median time between HSCT and HC was 39.5 days (range, 1-2766 days); the median time between detection of a viral infection and HC was 32 days (range, 0-2752 days). In multivariate analysis, HC is correlated to the infection with the BK virus (hazard ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 5.03-6.90; P = .0001) and the adenovirus (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 4.06-5.80; P = .0003). The 5-year overall survival of patients with HC was 36%. The 5-year survival rates were not statistically different between patients with or without HC (25% vs. 39%; P = .20).


The presence of the identified risk factors should prompt closer follow-up with screening tests and preventive measures for BK virus and adenovirus infections in patients undergoing HSCT.

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