Temporal Trends in Adverse Events After Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Versus Everolimus-Eluting Metallic Stent Implantation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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Bioresorbable coronary stents have been introduced into clinical practice to improve the outcomes of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. The everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) is the most studied of these stent platforms; however, recent trials comparing BVS with everolimus-eluting metallic stents (EES) raised concerns about BVS safety. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of BVS versus EES in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.


We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, scientific sessions abstracts, and relevant Web sites for randomized trials with a follow-up of ≥2 years investigating percutaneous coronary interventions with BVS versus EES. The primary outcomes of our analysis were definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) and target lesion failure (TLF; device-oriented composite end point of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization [TLR]). Secondary outcomes were target vessel myocardial infarction, TLR, and cardiac death. We calculated the risk estimates for main outcomes according to a fixed-effect model.


We included 7 trials comprising data for 5583 patients randomized to receive either a BVS (n=3261) or an EES (n=2322). Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 24–36 months). Patients treated with BVS had a higher risk of definite/probable ST compared with patients treated with EES (odds ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.97–5.62; P<0.00001). In particular, patients with BVS had a higher risk of subacute, late, and very late ST, whereas the risk of acute ST was similar. Patients treated with BVS compared with EES had a higher risk at 2 years of TLF (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.90; P=0.003), driven mainly by an increased risk of target vessel myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.31–2.28; P=0.0001; I2=0%) and of TLR (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; P=0.05). Of importance, the risk of TLF and TLR for patients with BVS was higher between 1 and 2 years, whereas there was no difference in the first year. Risk of cardiac death was similar between the 2 groups.


Our meta-analysis of randomized trials with a follow-up of ≥2 years demonstrated a higher risk of ST and of TLF in patients treated with BVS compared with EES. Of note, BVS had a higher risk of subacute, late, and very late ST, whereas the risk of TLF and TLR was higher between 1 and 2 years.

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