Knowledge and self‐care behaviors among patients with heart failure in Jordan

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for 36.66% of total deaths in Jordan. Heart failure (HF) as one major type of CVD accounts for 8.7% of total deaths caused by CVD in Jordan (Jordanian Ministry of Health [JMOH], 2012). The prognosis for those with HF in the Middle East is quite poor, with approximately 25% and 50% mortality at 1 and 5 years, respectively (Hassan, 2015).
Adequate self‐care is strongly associated with heart failure survival (Ades et al., 2013; Keteyian, Squires, Ades, & Thomas, 2014) and may reduce mortality and readmission rates among patients with HF (Lee, Moser, Lennie, & Riegel, 2011). Non‐adherence to medication regimes and fluid restriction are main reasons for hospitalization (Van der Wal, Jaarsma, Moser, & van Veldhuisen, 2005). Optimal self‐care is considered a significant non‐pharmacological constituent of HF management to improve survival and well‐being and reduce hospital readmissions (Lainscak et al., 2011).
Efficient self‐care involves the transfer of knowledge to behaviors that ultimately benefit both patient and health services (Clark et al., 2010). Knowledge deficit about HF may lead to poor self‐care maintenance and management (van Der Wal et al., 2006). Areas of knowledge deficit among patients with HF include symptom monitoring and management, medications, nutrition and weight, fluid and sodium management, physical activity, and smoking cessation (Lainscak et al., 2011). Knowledge is positively correlated with adequate self‐care behaviors (SCBs) and adherence to healthy lifestyle (Ahmad & Tawalbeh, 2015; Tawalbeh & Ahmad, 2014; van Der Wal et al., 2006), whereas lack of knowledge may negatively affect SCBs (Riegel et al., 2009; Tawalbeh & Ahmad, 2014). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the association of knowledge and sociodemographic factors to SCBs among patients with HF.

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