Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized Split-Site Approach Comparison of Sequential 5-Fluorouracil and 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy to 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Monotherapy

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are skin lesions resulting from sun exposure and carry a risk of developing into squamous cell carcinoma. Current therapies for AK eradication include topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). However, sequential therapy with 5-FU-ALA-PDT may offer improved outcome compared to ALA-PDT alone.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term efficacy of AK clearance by sequential therapy with 5-FU-ALA-PDT versus ALA-PDT alone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This is a single center, randomized split-site approach study on equivalent anatomical and clinical sites. Seventeen patients were enrolled with one half of the site randomized to receive sequential 5-FU-ALA-PDT and the other side with ALA-PDT monotherapy. Total AKs were counted at baseline, 6 and 12 months.

RESULTS

Median percentage reduction in AK number at 6 months for 5-FU-ALA-PDT versus ALA-PDT was 100% for 5-FU-ALA-PDT (N = 21) and 66.7% for ALA-PDT (N = 21), p = .001. Median percentage reduction in AK number at 12 months for 5-FU-ALA-PDT versus ALA-PDT was 100% for 5-FU-ALA-PDT (N = 22) and 82.6% for ALA-PDT (N = 22), p = .0002.

CONCLUSION

Sequential therapy with 5-FU-ALA-PDT is more effective at AK clearance at 6 and 12 months compared to ALA-PDT monotherapy.

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