Indinavir Plus Methylprednisolone Ameliorates Experimental Acute Lung Injury In Vitro and In Vivo.
An abnormal HMGB1 activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ALI.METHODS
In this study, the effects of Indinavir plus methylprednisolone on the LPS-mediated activation in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), on the injury of AT I in vitro, and on rats with LPS-induced two-hit model with or without methylprednisolone were investigated.RESULTS
Indinavir treatment resulted in a reduction of HMGB1, its receptor TLR-4, and HMGB1's downstream p-NF-κB, attenuating a decrease of VE-cadherin in LPS-stimulated HPMECs. Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE and aquaporin 5. Compared to methylprednisolone alone, methylprednisolone plus Indinavir attenuated the decrease of GRα and IκB-α in cytoplasm and avoid GRα deficiency in LPS-stimulated HPMECs for 96 h, attenuated the increase of p-NF-κB in nucleus. Indinavir ameliorated histopathological changes of two-hit ALI model of rats with reductions in microvascular permeability, lower HMGB1, TLR4, p-NF-κB, and MPO expression, whereas higher RAGE, aquaporin 5, and VE-cadherin in LPS-instilled lungs. Compared to methylprednisolone alone, methylprednisolone plus Indinavir attenuated the decrease of GRα and IκB-α in cytoplasm, decreased p-NF-κB in nucleus of lung tissue of two-hit ALI rats, and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of methylprednisolone for avoiding GRα deficiency.CONCLUSION
It demonstrated that Indinavir prevented experimental ALI model of rats by modulating the HMGB1/TLR-4 pathway to resolve systemic inflammation response in a greater degree with methylprednisolone, reduced the use time and dose of methylprednisolone, and avoided GRα deficiency in ALI and ARDS.