Rebooting Kirkpatrick: Integrating Information System Theory Into the Evaluation of Web-based Continuing Professional Development Interventions for Interprofessional Education
Information system research has stressed the importance of theory in understanding how user perceptions can motivate the use and adoption of technology such as web-based continuing professional development programs for interprofessional education (WCPD-IPE). A systematic review was conducted to provide an information system perspective on the current state of WCPD-IPE program evaluation and how current evaluations capture essential theoretical constructs in promoting technology adoption.Methods:
Six databases were searched to identify studies evaluating WCPD-IPE. Three investigators determined eligibility of the articles. Evaluation items extracted from the studies were assessed using the Kirkpatrick–Barr framework and mapped to the Benefits Evaluation Framework.Results:
Thirty-seven eligible studies yielded 362 evaluation items for analysis. Most items (n = 252) were assessed as Kirkpatrick–Barr level 1 (reaction) and were mainly focused on the quality (information, service, and quality) and satisfaction dimensions of the Benefits Evaluation. System quality was the least evaluated quality dimension, accounting for 26 items across 13 studies. WCPD-IPE use was reported in 17 studies and its antecedent factors were evaluated in varying degrees of comprehensiveness.Discussion:
Although user reactions were commonly evaluated, greater focus on user perceptions of system quality (ie, functionality and performance), usefulness, and usability of the web-based platform is required. Surprisingly, WCPD-IPE use was reported in less than half of the studies. This is problematic as use is a prerequisite to realizing any individual, organizational, or societal benefit of WCPD-IPE. This review proposes an integrated framework which accounts for these factors and provides a theoretically grounded guide for future evaluations.