Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistocytosis in a Child With Brucellosis

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Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome that is characterized by proliferation of histiocytes and hemophagocytosis in different organs. The diagnostic criteria include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, high serum ferritin level, decreased natural killer cell activity, elevated soluble CD25 level, high serum fasting triglyceride level or low fibrinogen level, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, spleen, or lymph nodes. HLH can be classified as primary and secondary. Secondary HLH can be related to infections. Here we report a case of Brucella-related HLH, which has been rarely reported in the literature.

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