Postoperative Multimodal Analgesia Pain Management With Nonopioid Analgesics and Techniques: A Review

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Abstract

Importance

Amid the current opioid epidemic in the United States, the enhanced recovery after surgery pathway (ERAS) has emerged as one of the best strategies to improve the value and quality of surgical care and has been increasingly adopted for a broad range of complex surgical procedures. The goal of this article was to outline important components of opioid-sparing analgesic regimens.

Observations

Regional analgesia, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, gabapentinoids, tramadol, lidocaine, and/or the N-methyl-D-aspartate class of glutamate receptor antagonists have been shown to be effective adjuncts to narcotic analgesia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are not associated with an increase in postoperative bleeding. A meta-analysis of 27 randomized clinical trials found no difference in postoperative bleeding between the groups taking ketorolac tromethamine (33 of 1304 patients [2.5%]) and the control groups (21 of 1010 [2.1%]) (odds ratio [OR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.61-2.06; P = .72). After adoption of the multimodal analgesia approach for a colorectal ERAS pathway, most patients used less opioids while in the hospital and many did not need opioids after hospital discharge, although approximately 50% of patients received some opioid during their stay.

Conclusions and Relevance

Multimodal analgesia is readily available and the evidence is strong to support its efficacy. Surgeons should use this effective approach for patients both using and not using the ERAS pathway to reduce opioid consumption.

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