The evolution of an uncemented acetabular component in alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty has improved clinical outcome: A PROSPECTIVE, COMPARATIVE FIVE- TO 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY

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Abstract

Aims

To determine the effect of a change in design of a cementless ceramic acetabular component in fixation and clinical outcome after total hip arthroplasty

Patients and Methods

We compared 342 hips (302 patients) operated between 1999 and 2005 with a relatively smooth hydroxyapatite coated acetabular component (group 1), and 337 hips (310 patients) operated between 2006 and 2011 using a similar acetabular component with a macrotexture on the entire outer surface of the component (group 2). The mean age of the patients was 53.5 (14 to 70) in group 1 and 53.0 (15 to 70) in group 2. The mean follow-up was 12.7 years (10 to 17) for group 1 and 7.2 years (4 to 10) for group 2.

Results

No hips were revised due to complications related to bearing fracture or to stem loosening. A total of 15 acetabular components were revised for aseptic loosening in group 1 and two in group 2. The survival rate for acetabular component aseptic loosening at eight years was 96.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.8 to 98.7) for group 1 and 99.2% (95% CI 98.0 to 100) for group 2. The risk for aseptic loosening of the acetabular component was higher in group 1 (p = 0.04, Hazard Ratio (HR) 4.99), dysplastic acetabula (p = 0.01, HR 4.12), components outside Lewinnek's zone (p < 0.001, HR 6.13) and in those with a hip rotation centre distance greater than 5 mm (p = 0.005, HR 4.09).

Conclusion

Alumina ceramic-on-ceramic THA is an excellent option for young patients. Although newer components appeared to improve fixation, acetabular reconstruction is essential to obtain a satisfactory outcome.

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