Delivery room interventions to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic respiratory complication of preterm birth. Preterm infants are at risk for acute lung injury immediately after birth, which predisposes to BPD. In this article, we review the current evidence for interventions applied during neonatal transition (delivery room and first postnatal hours of life) to prevent BPD in extremely preterm infants: continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), sustained lung inflation, supplemental oxygen use during neonatal resuscitation, and surfactant therapy including less-invasive surfactant administration. Preterm infants should be stabilized with CPAP in the delivery room, reserving invasive mechanical ventilation for infants who fail non-invasive respiratory support. For infants who require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation soon after birth, surfactant should be given early ( < 2 h of life). We recommend prudent titration of supplemental oxygen in the delivery room to achieve targeted oxygen saturations. Promising interventions that may further reduce BPD, such as sustained inflation and non-invasive surfactant administration, are currently under investigation.