Purpose of Review: Neurologic dysfunction is prevalent in patients with acute and chronic renal disease and may affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may result directly from the uremic state or as a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of neurologic dysfunction may provide opportunities for intervention and reduced morbidity.
Recent Findings: Advances in the understanding of neurologic complications of renal disease and its treatments have led to more widespread recognition and earlier identification of encephalopathy syndromes such as cefepime neurotoxicity and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), dramatic reductions in the incidence of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and dialysis dementia, and improved survival in disorders such as von Hippel-Lindau disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Summary: This article summarizes the conditions that affect both the renal and the nervous systems, the effects of renal failure on the nervous system, and the neurologic complications of dialysis.