To describe recurrence patterns and investigate candidate risk factors for recurrences of central serous chorioretinopathy.Methods:
In 46 patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy and follow-up >12 months after first episode resolution, parameters influencing recurrences were retrospectively evaluated using a frailty Cox proportional hazard survival model. Covariates included baseline systemic findings: age, gender, corticosteroid use, stress, shift work, sleep disorder, depression, allergy, cardiovascular risk; baseline optical coherence tomography findings: subfoveal choroidal thickness, pigment epithelial detachment pattern (regular/bump/irregular), number of subretinal hyperreflective foci at leakage site; baseline angiographic findings: fluorescein leakage intensity (intense/moderate/subtle/absent), hyperpermeability pattern on indocyanine-green angiography (focal/multifocal); and episode-related findings: duration and treatment of previous episode.Results:
Twenty of 46 subjects (43%) presented ≥1 recurrences during a mean follow-up of 29.9 ± 9.5 months (range, 15–54 months). Follow-up duration did not differ between cases with or without recurrences (P = 0.3). Worse final visual acuity levels (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) were associated with a higher number of episodes during follow-up (P = 0.032, r = 0.28). In a univariate analysis, higher subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.021), nonintense fluorescein leakage (= moderate/subtle/absent, P = 0.033), multiple subretinal hyperreflective foci (P = 0.026), and shift work (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with recurrences, with a near-significant influence of irregular pigment epithelial detachment (P = 0.093). In a multivariate analysis, higher subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.007), nonintense fluorescein leakage (P = 0.003) and shift work (P < 0.0001) remained significant and independent risk factors for recurrences.Conclusion:
Multiple factors influence the risk of central serous chorioretinopathy recurrence. These findings may contribute to identify patients at higher risk, who could benefit from earlier or more intensive treatment.