Bisphenol A impairs the memory function and glutamatergic homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner in mice: Beneficial effects of diphenyl diselenide
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound integrated in commodities, which consequently increases the human exposure to this toxicant. The deleterious effects of BPA exposure during periods of brain development have been documented mainly concerning the impairment in memory functions. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound, shows protective/restorative effects against memory deficits in experimental models. Thus, this study investigated the effects of (PhSe)2 on the memory impairments induced by BPA exposure to male and female mice and the possible involvement of glutamatergic system in these effects. Three-week-old male and female Swiss mice received BPA (5 mg/kg), intragastrically, from 21st to 60th postnatal day. After, the animals were intragastrically treated with (PhSe)2 (1 mg/kg) during seven days. The mice performed the behavioral memory tests and the [3H] glutamate uptake and NMDA receptor subunits (2A and 2B) analyses were carried out in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice. The results demonstrated that the BPA exposure induced impairment of object recognition memory in both sexes. However, it caused impairments in spatial memory in female and in the passive avoidance memory in male mice. Besides, BPA caused a decrease in the [3H] glutamate uptake and NMDA receptor subunit levels in the cortical and hippocampal regions depending on the sex. Treatment with (PhSe)2 reversed in a sex-independent manner the behavioral impairments and molecular alterations. In conclusion, BPA had a negative effect in different memory types as well as in the glutamatergic parameters in a sex-dependent manner and (PhSe)2 treatment was effective against these alterations.