Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, or Combined Modality Therapy and the Impact on Survival for Uterine Carcinosarcoma Limited to the Pelvis

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Abstract

Objective

Clinical outcomes for patients with uterine carcinosarcoma are poor after surgical management alone. Adjuvant therapies including chemotherapy (CT) and/or radiation therapy (RT) have been previously investigated, but the optimal management of this disease remains controversial. The purposes of this study were to analyze the patterns of use of adjuvant CT and RT and to assess the impact on survival of each of these treatment regimens using the National Cancer Data Base.

Methods/Materials

The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients given a diagnosis of uterine carcinosarcoma confined to the pelvis who underwent total hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy between 2004 and 2011. Patients were excluded if they survived less than 4 months after diagnosis. Data regarding CT and RT use were collected. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of covariates on OS.

Results

A total of 4906 patients were included in this study. Median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 60–75 years). Median follow-up was 28.9 months (interquartile range, 15.4–52.9 months). There were 1777 patients (36.2%) who received no adjuvant treatment, 971 (19.8%) who received CT alone, 1060 (21.6%) who received RT alone, and 1098 (22.4%) who received both RT and CT. The 5-year OS for patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, adjuvant RT alone, adjuvant CT alone, and combined CT and RT were 44.9%, 47.1%, 47.5%, and 62.9%, respectively. On pairwise analysis, combined CT and RT was associated with improved survival compared with all other subgroups (P < 0.001). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, combined CT and RT (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–0.57; P < 0.001) and CT alone (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.69–0.88; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with improved OS, whereas RT alone was not.

Conclusions

Combination therapy with CT and RT was associated with significantly improved 5-year OS compared with no further therapy, RT alone, or CT alone.

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