New Strategies Targeting Virulence Factors of: Controversies and Evolving Concepts in Hospital-Acquired PneumoniaStaphylococcus aureus and: Controversies and Evolving Concepts in Hospital-Acquired PneumoniaPseudomonas aeruginosa: Controversies and Evolving Concepts in Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia
Morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain high in mechanically ventilated and hospitalized patients despite the use of empirical antibiotic therapy or antibiotics against specific classes of pathogens and procedures to reduce nosocomial infections in hospital settings. Newer agents that neutralize or inhibit specific S. aureus or P. aeruginosa virulence factors may eliminate or reduce the risk for developing pneumonia before or during mechanical ventilation and may improve patient outcomes through mechanisms that differ from those of antibiotics. In this article, we review the types, mechanisms of action, potential advantages, and stage of development of antivirulence agents (AVAs) that hold promise as alternative preventive or interventional therapies against S. aureus - and P. aeruginosa -associated nosocomial pneumonias. We also present and discuss challenges to the effective utilization of AVAs separately from or in addition to antibiotics and the design of clinical trials and meaningful study end points.