The first case of domino-split-liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease

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The enzymatic defect in MSUD results in accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites of BCAAs. LTX has shown to be a feasible strategy in patients non-responsive to diet. Because of sufficient enzyme activity in extrahepatic tissues in healthy people, the MSUD liver graft is a suitable domino organ. We present the first case of a technical challenging ex situ split of a MSUD domino organ transplanted into two pediatric recipients. The domino graft donor was a 21-year-old female (58 kg) suffering from MSUD with recurrent metabolic decompensation despite strict diet. The organ was allocated to a 14-year-old girl (55 kg) with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Due to excellent organ quality and suitable anatomy, a backward split for a girl of 3 months (5 kg) with decompensated liver cirrhosis due to biliary atresia was performed. The postoperative course was without relevant complications, and the three recipients were discharged on postoperative days 28, 29, and 45, respectively, with good organ function. BCAAs in plasma were normal in the two domino graft recipients, and the MSUD patient showed mildly elevated but stable BCAA concentrations despite an unrestricted diet. Split-domino LTX enabled successful transplantation of three patients of the waiting list with only one deceased donor graft.

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