Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Craniosynostosis Surgery

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Abstract

Methods:

The authors retrospectively reviewed 79 patients with craniosynostosis who underwent either bifrontal or biparietal-occipital calvarial vault remodeling before institution of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration (non-TXA group) and 35 patients after institution of TXA administration (TXA group). The patients were analyzed in 2 groups: all open calvarial vault remodeling patients (anterior and posterior) as a whole, and anterior vaults only as a subset analysis. Primary outcomes accessed were: total intraoperative blood transfused, postoperative blood transfused, and estimated blood loss (EBL). Secondary outcomes evaluated were length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and hospital length of stay.

Results:

When comparing all open calvarial vault remodeling patients, patients who received TXA required significantly less total blood transfusion during their operation (264 cc TXA group versus 428 cc non-TXA, P < 0.0001). Patients who received TXA required no blood transfusions postoperatively, compared with the non-TXA group, in which 45% of patients required postoperative blood transfusion. Weight-based EBL was also significantly lower in those patients receiving TXA (25 cc/kg in the TXA group versus 34 cc/kg in the non-TXA group [P = 0.0143]). All patients required transfusion intraoperatively. Pediatric intensive care unit length of stay was shorter in the TXA group, but there was no significant difference in total hospital length of stay. These findings also reached statistical significance when comparing only the anterior vault patients.

Conclusion:

Intraoperative TXA administration has a correlation with reduced blood transfusion requirements, as well as EBL, in patients undergoing open calvarial vault remodeling. There were no adverse events related to TXA administration.

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