Identification of a flavonoidC-glycoside as potent antioxidant
Flavonoids have been documented to have good antioxidant activities in vitro. However, reports on the cellular antioxidant activities of flavonoid C-glycosides are very limited. In this work, an apigenin C-glycoside was purified from Artocarpus heterophyllus by column chromatography and was identified to be 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cellular antioxidant activity and anticancer activity of 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin were evaluated for the first time. The quantitative structure-activity relationship was analysed by molecular modeling. Apigenin presented an unexpected cellular antioxidation behaviour. It had an antioxidant activity at low concentration and a prooxidant activity at high concentration, whereas 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin showed a dose-dependent cellular antioxidant activity. It indicated that C-glycosidation improved the cellular antioxidation performance of apigenin and eliminated the prooxidant effect. The ortho-dihydroxyl at C-3′/C-4′ and C-3 hydroxyl in the flavonoid skeleton play important roles in the antioxidation behaviour. The cell proliferation assay revealed a low cytotoxicity of 2″-O-β-D-xylosylvitexin.