The effect of trimetazidine treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI

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Abstract

Purpose:

Trimetazidine (TMZ) improves clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure and stable coronary artery disease. No study has yet evaluated the efficacy of TMZ in type 2 diabetes patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy TMZ in DM patients with AMI undergoing PCI, such as the effect on reductions in myocardial enzyme, improvements in liver function, modulation of glucose levels, and improvement in cardiac function.

Methods:

For this randomized study, we enrolled 173 AMI patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing PCI between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2016. All patients received aspirin and ticagrelor upon admission and throughout their hospitalization. Patients in the experimental group were treated with a loading dose of 60 mg TMZ at admission, and 20 mg TMZ three times a day thereafter. 89 patients were included in experimental group, and 84 patients were included in control group. All patients received PCI treatments. The endpoints evaluated were serum creatine kinase and its isoenzyme (CK and CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTNI), serum creatinine (Cr), serum urea, blood glucose, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT), serum glutamic oxaloacetictransaminase (AST), left atrial dimension (LA), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), and cardiac output (CO).

Findings:

Compared with the control group, TMZ treatment significantly reduced CK and CK-MB on the second day in hospital ([797 ± 582] vs. [1092 ± 1114]; [80 ± 60] vs. [105 ± 100]; p = 0.029, p = 0.041, respectively), and cTNI after one and six days in hospital ([13.5 ± 12.7] vs. [19.8 ± 19.2]; [3.3 ± 3.2] vs. [4.8 ± 4.7]; two-tailed p = 0.012). In addition, TMZ significantly lowered liver enzymes (ALT, AST) at 6 days ([29.0 ± 11.6] vs. [42.4 ± 24.5]; [39.8 ± 17.3] vs. [69.2 ± 70.0]; two-tailed p = 0.000), lowered glucose after 6 days ([6.80 ± 2.12] vs. [7.59 ± 2.24]; p = 0.019), and increased LVEF after ten to fourteen days ([58.4 ± 8.6] vs. [54.9 ± 8.4]; p = 0.008). There were no significant effect on Cr and serum urea (p = 0.988, p = 0.569, respectively), nor on LA, LVEDD, and CO ([36.3 ± 4.5] vs. [37.0 ± 4.1], p = 0.264; [52.0 ± 4.9] vs. [53.1 ± 4.6], p = 0.128; [5.4 ± 0.9] vs. [5.4 ± 0.9], p = 0.929, respectively).

Implications:

Among type 2 diabetic patients with AMI undergoing PCI, TMZ significantly reduces serum myocardial enzyme, improves liver function, adjusts blood glucose and improves cardiac function.

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