Preface: State of the Art and Beyond

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The fields of cataract, cornea, and glaucoma are rapidly evolving both clinically and surgically, and there have been significant technological advances in the diagnosis of these diseases in the past few years. In this issue of the International Ophthalmology Clinics, we critically review the published literature and focus on advancements in anterior segment diagnostics.
Corneal diagnostics are evolving rapidly and we explore several commercial point of care tests that have been introduced for viral and bacterial infections of the cornea and conjunctiva. We also investigate the use of genetics in the diagnosis of corneal disease, with a focus on corneal dystrophies and the burgeoning field of genetics in the diagnosis of keratoconus. In addition, new tools and technologies have provided less invasive tests that aid in the early diagnosis of ocular surface disease. We also discuss the multiple techniques available for the diagnosis and differentiation of different ocular surface tumors.
Given the resurgence of refractive surgery and the advent of new refractive procedures such as SMILE, in this issue, we provide an update of the screening tools for corneal ectasia including elevation data, pachymetry mapping, and epithelial thickness changes. In addition we review the biochemical testing of the cornea. With the advent of new techniques of lamellar surgery, intraoperative and postoperative imaging of the cornea has become very important—thus, we delve into the literature discussing this technology. In the realm of glaucoma, we evaluate different modalities used to view anterior segment anatomy preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. We also delve into the preoperative assessment including ancillary testing of cataracts and review updates in optical biometry.
As our technologies continue to evolve, our diagnosis of various diseases will significantly improve. We critically review the published literature on these exciting diagnostic techniques.
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