AbstractPurpose of review
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease defined by the presence of nonnecrotizing granuloma in the absence of any known cause. Although the heterogeneity of sarcoidosis is well characterized clinically, the transcriptome of sarcoidosis and underlying molecular mechanisms are not. The signal of all transcripts, small and long noncoding RNAs, can be detected using microarrays or RNA-Sequencing. Analyzing the transcriptome of tissues that are directly affected by granulomas is of great importance to understand biology of the disease and may be predictive of disease and treatment outcome.Recent findings
Multiple genome wide expression studies performed on sarcoidosis affected tissues were published in the last 11 years. Published studies focused on differences in gene expression between sarcoidosis vs. control tissues, stable vs. progressive sarcoidosis, as well as sarcoidosis vs. other diseases. Strikingly, all these transcriptomics data confirm the key role of TH1 immune response in sarcoidosis and particularly of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and type I IFN-driven signaling pathways.Summary
The steps toward transcriptomics of sarcoidosis in precision medicine highlight the potentials of this approach. Large prospective follow-up studies are required to identify signatures predictive of disease progression and outcome.