Endometriosis is a chronic medical condition that affects around 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility are the most common presenting symptoms. The disease is characterized by estrogen-dependent growth of the endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrial cavity. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and can be only confirmed on histopathology. Treatment includes medical and surgical options. Both hormonal and nonhormonal medical options are available and are tried at first with a goal to control pain and stop the growth of the endometriotic lesions. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, aromatase inhibitors are some of the commonly used medications. With more research on the molecular and biochemical aspects of endometriosis, newer targets of therapy are being developed like selective progesterone receptor modulators, antiangiogenic factors and immunomodulators. In women who do not respond to medical therapy or have severe symptoms, surgical excision of the endometrial lesions and adhesions is often helpful and offers confirmatory diagnosis by histopathology.