Two cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors in postmenopausal women

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Abstract

Objective:

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a rare gestational trophoblastic neoplasm usually presenting in women of reproductive age, with a history of a prior gestational event. Its presentation in postmenopausal women is extremely rare. Immunohistochemical staining is a helpful aid to distinguish epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Correct diagnosis is crucial for clinical management that can vary according to the type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm.

Methods:

We report the case of a 63-year-old postmenopausal woman 33 years after her last full-term pregnancy and another case of a 57-year-old postmenopausal woman who had had a first-trimester abortion 30 years previously as her last gestational event, both presenting cervical epithelioid trophoblastic tumors. In both cases, immunohistochemistry played an important role in differentiating this entity from other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Surgery was the primary treatment in both cases. The first patient remained disease-free and died 5 years later due to a rectal adenocarcinoma, and the second patient remains disease-free at publication.

Results:

In both cases, the hysterectomy specimen confirmed the presence of two large epithelioid trophoblastic tumors arising in the endocervix and lower uterine segment with no extrauterine disease. Nuclear positivity for p63 allowed differentiation from a placental site trophoblastic tumor. The Ki67 proliferative index was 20% and 35%, respectively.

Conclusions:

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors may occur a long time after a prior gestational event and should even be excluded in postmenopausal women with uterine masses. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful to make the differential diagnosis with other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

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