Functional movement disorders

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The review highlights the clinical presentation of functional movement disorders (FMDs) and presents current evidence on bedside signs and paraclinical tests to differentiate them from other neurological disorders.

Recent findings

FMDs are diagnosed by the presence of positive clinical signs as emphasized in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 classification criteria. Bedside signs are numerous, and a subset of them has been validated in controlled studies. This review summarizes evidence from the literature on specificity and sensibility of positive clinical signs for FMDs. The value of rule-in paraclinical tests to confirm the diagnosis is also presented. Recent developments in neuroscience with pathophysiological mechanisms and current treatment strategies are also discussed.

Summary

FMDs represent a field of neurology that is currently rapidly growing in terms of research. Clinicians should be aware that highly reliable signs exist for the diagnosis and that early multidisciplinary treatment should be offered.

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