Prognostic impact of hyponatremia occurring at various time points during hospitalization on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction
We investigated the incidence and prognostic impact of hyponatremia occurring at various time points during hospitalization on long-term mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors. We retrospectively studied 1863 patients diagnosed with AMI. Baseline, nadir, and discharge sodium levels during hospitalization were recorded and analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level <135 mEq/L. On the basis of baseline, nadir, and discharge sodium levels during hospitalization, hyponatremia was diagnosed in 309 (16.6%), 518 (27.8%), and 147 (7.9%) patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-proportional regression analysis, discharge sodium level had the strongest significant relationship with long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR] as continuous variable = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.11, P = .026; HR as categorical variable = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.06–2.75; P = .028), but baseline and nadir sodium had no prognostic impact on long-term mortality after adjustment. The serum sodium level and incidence of hyponatremia varied at different time points during hospitalization. In addition, the association between sodium level and long-term mortality differed at these various time points. The discharge sodium level, among the various time points, seems the best predictor of long-term mortality in AMI survivors.