Perioperative and Anesthetic Considerations in Atrioventricular Septal Defect
Atrioventricular septal defect results from a failure of normal endocardial cushion fusion during embryologic cardiac development. This developmental aberration results in defects in the atrial and/or ventricular septum and malformation of the atrioventricular valves. The pathophysiology of atrioventricular septal defect is variable, and ranges from mild left to right shunting similar to a simple atrial septal defect to complex single-ventricle heart disease. This review focuses on the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defect from partial to complete, without associated cardiac defects.