Simulation training offers a useful opportunity to appreciate vascular anatomy and develop the technical expertise required to clip intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation.Materials and Methods
In cadavers, a comparison was made between the endoscopic transclival approach (ETA) alone and a combined multiportal approach using the ETA and a transorbital precaruncular approach (TOPA) to evaluate degrees of freedom, angles of visualization, and ergonomics of aneurysm clip application to the posterior circulation depending on basilar apex position relative to the posterior clinoids.Results
ETA alone provided improved access to the posterior circulation when the basilar apex was high riding compared with the posterior clinoids. ETA + TOPA provided a significantly improved functional working area for instruments and visualization of the posterior circulation for a midlevel basilar apex. A single-shaft clip applier provided improved visualization and space for instruments. Proximal and distal vascular control and feasibility of aneurysmal clipping were demonstrated.Conclusions
TOPA is a medial orbital approach to the central skull base; a transorbital neuroendoscopic surgery approach. This anatomical simulation provides surgical teams an alternative to the ETA approach alone to address posterior circulation aneurysms, and a means to preoperatively prepare for intraoperative anatomical and surgical instrumentation challenges.