Laboratory characterization of leukemic cell procoagulants
In acute myeloid leukemias, there is an increased chance to develop thrombotic disorders. We hypothesized that in addition to leukemic promyelocytes, monocytic leukemia cells may also have a higher procoagulant activity.Methods:
Fibrin formation was assessed by a one-stage clotting assay using a magnetic coagulometer. The thrombin generation test (TGT) of magnetically isolated normal human monocytes, intact leukemic cells and their isolated microparticles was performed by a fluorimetric assay. Phosphatidylserine (PS) expression of leukemic cells and microparticle number determinations were carried out by flow cytometry.Results:
All cell lines displayed a significant procoagulant potential compared to isolated normal human monocytes. In the TGT test, the mean of lagtime and the time to peak parameters were significantly shorter in leukemic cells (3.9-4.7 and 9.9-10.3 min) compared to monocytes (14.9 and 26.5 min). The mean of peak thrombin in various monocytic leukemia cell lines was 112.1-132.9 nM vs. 75.1 nM in monocytes; however, no significant difference was observed in the ETP parameter. Factor VII-deficient plasma abolished all procoagulant activity, whereas factor XII-deficient plasma did not affect the speed of fibrin formation and thrombin generation but modulated the amount of thrombin. Factor XI-deficient plasma affected the time to peak values in one leukemic cell line and also attenuated peak thrombin. Leukemia cell-derived microparticles from all three cell lines exerted a procoagulant effect by significantly shortening the lagtime in TGT; there was a nonsignificant difference in case of ETP parameter.Conclusions:
All investigated monocytic leukemia cell lines exhibited significant thrombin generation. This phenomenon was achieved by the procoagulants on the surface of leukemic cells as well as by their microparticles.