Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants resuscitated with different oxygen concentration at birth

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 21 months corrected age (CA) of infants born at < 29 weeks that received room air, an intermediate oxygen concentration or 100% oxygen at the initiation of resuscitation.

STUDY DESIGN:

In this retrospective cohort study, we compared neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 21 months CA among inborn infants born before 29 weeks' gestation that received room air, intermediate oxygen concentration or 100% oxygen at the initiation of resuscitation.

RESULTS:

Of 1509 infants, 445 received room air, 483 received intermediate oxygen concentrations and 581 received 100% oxygen. Compared to infants that received room air, the primary outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was not different in intermediate oxygen (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77, 1.34) or 100% oxygen (aOR 1.03; 95% CI 0.78, 1.35). Compared to room air, there was no difference in odds of death or severe NDI in intermediate oxygen (aOR 1.14; 95% CI 0.82, 1.58) or 100% oxygen group (aOR 1.22; 95% CI 0.90, 1.67). The odds of severe NDI among survivors were significantly higher in infants that received 100% oxygen as compared to room air (aOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05, 2.35).

CONCLUSIONS:

We observed no significant difference in the primary composite outcomes of death or NDI and death or severe NDI at 18 to 21 months CA between infants that received room air, intermediate oxygen concentration or 100% oxygen at the initiation of resuscitation. However, use of 100% oxygen was associated with increased odds of severe NDI among survivors as compared to room air.

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