All-Cause Mortality After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare all-cause mortality between women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery with those who underwent conventional surgery for stage I ovarian cancer.

METHODS:

In a cohort study using the National Cancer Database, we identified women younger than 40 years diagnosed with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer between 2004 and 2012. Fertility-sparing surgery was defined as conservation of one ovary and the uterus. The primary outcome was time from diagnosis to death. We used propensity score methods to assemble a cohort of women who underwent fertility-sparing or conventional surgery but were otherwise similar on observed covariates and conducted survival analyses using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:

We identified 1,726 women with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer of whom 825 (47.8%) underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Fertility-sparing surgery was associated with younger age, residence in the northeastern and western United States, and serous or mucinous histology (P<.05 for all). Propensity score matching yielded a cohort of 904 women who were balanced on observed covariates. We observed 30 deaths among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 37 deaths among propensity-matched women who underwent conventional surgery after a median follow-up of 63 months. Fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with hazard of death (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–1.29, P=.36). The probability of survival 10 years after diagnosis was 88.5% (95% CI 82.4–92.6) in the fertility-sparing group and 88.9% (95% CI 84.9–92.0) in the conventional surgery group. In patients with high-risk features such as clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC, 10-year survival was 80.5% (95% CI 68.5–88.3) among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 83.4% (95% 76.0–88.7) among those who had conventional surgery (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.49–1.53, P=.61).

CONCLUSION:

Compared with conventional surgery, fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with increased risk of death in young women with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.

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