Neuroinflammation has been shown as an essential factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, activated microglia and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major hallmarks in neurodegenerative diseases. A multimolecular complex named as inflammasome is involved in the process of inflammatory response, which can activate inflammatory caspases, leading to the cleavage and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and finally generates a potent inflammatory response. In neurodegenerative diseases, it has been widely assumed that some types of amyloid proteins might be the triggers to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this review, we summarize the current researches about the role of NLRP3 inflammasome, by reviewing the main studies in vitro and in vivo experiments and discuss the potential for new therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases.