Assessment of aortic wall thrombus predicts outcomes of endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms using fenestrated and branched endografts

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Abstract

Objective

The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between atherothrombotic aortic wall thrombus (AWT) and clinical outcomes in patients treated by fenestrated-branched endovascular aortic repair (F-BEVAR) and present a new classification system for assessment of AWT burden.

Methods

The clinical data of 301 patients treated for pararenal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) by F-BEVAR was reviewed. The study excluded 89 patients with extent I to III TAAA because of extensive laminated thrombus within the aneurysm sac. Computed tomography angiograms were analyzed in all patients to determine the location, extent, and severity of atherothrombotic AWT. The aorta was divided into three segments: ascending and arch (A), thoracic (B) and renal-mesenteric (C). Volumetric measurements (cm3) of AWT were performed using TeraRecon software (TeraRecon Inc, Foster City, Calif). These volumes were used to create an AWT index by dividing the AWT volume from the total aortic volume. A classification system was proposed using objective assessment of the number of affected segments, thrombus type, thickness, area, and circumference. Clinical outcomes included 30-day mortality, neurologic and gastrointestinal complications, renal events (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage renal disease [RIFLE]), and solid organ infarction.

Results

The study included 212 patients, 169 men (80%) and 43 women (20%), with a mean age of 76 ± 7 years. A total of 700 renal-mesenteric arteries were incorporated (3.1 ± 1 vessels/patient). AWT was classified as mild in 98 patients (46%) and was considered moderate or severe in 114 (54%). There was one death (0.5%) at 30 days. Solid organ infarction was present in 50 patients (24%), and acute kidney injury occurred in 45 patients (21%) by RIFLE criteria. An association with higher AWT indices was found for time to resume enteral diet (P = .0004) and decline in renal function (P = .0003). Patients with acute kidney injury 2 by RIFLE criterion had significantly higher (P = .002) AWT index scores in segment B. Spinal cord injury occurred in three patients (1.4%) and stroke in four (1.9%), but were not associated with the AWT index. Severity of AWT using the new proposed classification system correlated with the AWT index in all three segments (P < .001). Any of the end points occurred in 35% of the patients with mild and in 53% of those with moderate or severe AWT (P = .016).

Conclusions

AWT predicts solid organ infarction, renal function deterioration, and longer time to resume enteral diet after F-BEVAR of pararenal and type IV TAAAs. Evaluation of AWT should be part of preoperative planning and decision making for selection of the ideal method of treatment in these patients.

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