Cancer mortality in patients with schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis
Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality.Aims
To summarise available evidence and quantify the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality using meta-analysis.Method
We systematically searched literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals reported in individual studies were pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model.Results
We included 19 studies in the meta-analysis. Among them, 15 studies reported standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing patients with schizophrenia with the general population, and the pooled SMR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.29–1.52, P < 0.001). The other four studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) comparing individuals with schizophrenia with those without schizophrenia; the pooled HR was 1.51 (95% CI 1.13–2.03, P = 0.006).Conclusions
Patients with schizophrenia are at a significantly increased risk of cancer mortality compared with the general population or individuals without schizophrenia.