A Monte Carlo model and its commissioning for the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

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Abstract

Purpose

To develop and commission a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model for the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) Perfexion (PFX) radiosurgery system.

Method

We previously established a source model for MC simulations of the LGK PFX for the purpose of the treatment planning system (TPS) dose verification and plan evaluation. To make practical and effective use of the model in clinic, several issues need to be addressed. First, thorough commissioning procedures are needed to ensure the validity of the model parameters, such as the source-to-focus (STF) distance, the source solid angle. Second, an efficient source particle sampling method is required to facilitate dose calculations for multitarget and multishot configurations in patient treatment plans. Third, inseparably, it is interesting to know the dose difference between the two GK TPS algorithms (TMR and convolution) and the MC method in extreme heterogeneous cases resulting from the inhomogeneous effect. We report our recent development in addressing these issues. Phantoms with the frame fiducials were manually created in the format of DICOM CT image to eliminate the uncertainties associated with scanner artifacts and image registration. The created homogeneous phantom was used to calibrate the model parameters to match the output factors with the manufacturer provided data, and the heterogeneous phantom with multilayer materials was used to study the inhomogeneous effect.

Results

The agreement between the MC calculation and TPS was very good for the homogeneous spherical phantom. The difference of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the profiles was less than 1 mm except for the profile for 16 mm collimator along z-axis (less than 2 mm). For the extreme heterogeneous test case, it was shown that the TMR algorithm can overestimate the target dose by up to 22% using the measure of dose volume parameter D95. The agreement between the MC method and the TPS convolution method was better (within 3.6%) for the target near the center of phantom, however, discrepancy (up to 10.7%) existed for the target close to the skull. The difference between the two TPS dose algorithms was about 11%.

Conclusions

Considerable dose difference may result from the effect of heterogeneity, such as in the regions of the air cavities and bones. As the MC method has been extensively used in conventional external beams, it is worthwhile for further investigation in applying the MC method to accurate dose planning in the new GK PFX radiosurgery platform.

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