Pharmacological evaluation and molecular docking of new di-tert-butylphenol compound, LQFM-091, a new dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor
Dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitors are potential new dual drugs to treat inflammatory conditions. This research aimed to design, synthesis and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the new compound, which is derived from nimesulide and darbufelone lead compounds. The new dual inhibitor 5-LOX/COX has the possible advantage of gastrointestinal safety. A voltammetric experiment was conducted to observe the drug's antioxidative effect. A formalin test, a hot plate test and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia were employed to evaluate the analgesic nature of LQFM-091. To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity, we measured edema, leukocyte count, myeloperoxidase activity and cytokines levels in carrageenan-induced inflammation tests. We elucidated the underlying mechanisms by assessing the interaction the with COXs and LOX enzymes by colorimetric screening assay and molecular docking. The lethal dose (LD50) was estimated using 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake assay. Our results indicate that the LQFM-091 prototype is a powerful antioxidant, as well as able to inhibit COX-1, COX-2 and LOX activities. LQFM091 was classified in GHS category 4 (300 < LD50 < 2000 mg/Kg). This prototype showed analgesic activity in the formalin test and decreased carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Furthermore, LQFM-091 reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan and reduced the leukocyte count, myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the pleural exudate. Another interesting finding was the absence of gastrointestinal lesions. These data indicate that LQFM-091 produced antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects while maintaining gastrointestinal safety. Furthermore, this compound presented a safe toxicological profile. Blocked COXs and LOX enzymes are important targets for manipulating the mechanism of this compound.