Binary test battery with KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT as part of a bottom-up approach for skin sensitization hazard prediction
Skin sensitization is one of the key safety endpoints for chemicals applied directly to the skin. Several integrated testing strategies (ITS) using multiple non-animal test methods have been developed to accurately evaluate the sensitizing potential of chemicals, but there is no regulatory-accepted ITS to classify a chemical as a non-sensitizer. In this study, the predictive performance of a binary test battery with KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human data was examined using comprehensive dataset of 203 chemicals. When two negative results indicate a non-sensitizer, the binary test battery provided sensitivity of 93.4% or 94.4% compared with the LLNA or human data. Taking into account the predictive limitations (i.e. high log Kow, pre-/pro-haptens and acyl transfer agents (or amine-reactive)), the binary test battery had extremely high sensitivity comparable to that of the 3 out of 3 ITS where three negative results of the DPRA, KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT indicate a non-sensitizer. Therefore, the data from KeratinoSens™ or h-CLAT may provide partly redundant information on the molecular initiating event derived from DPRA. Taken together, the binary test battery of KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT could be used as part of a bottom-up approach for skin sensitization hazard prediction.