A comprehensive spectroscopic study of the polymorphs of diflunisal and their phase transformations
Understanding phase transitions in pharmaceutical materials is of vital importance for drug manufacturing, processing and storage. In this paper we have carried out comprehensive high-resolution spectroscopic studies on the polymorphs of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that has four known polymorphs, forms I–IV (FI–FIV), three of which have known crystal structures. Phase transformations during milling, heating, melt-quenching and exposure to high relative humidity were investigated using Raman and terahertz spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The observed phase transformations indicate the stability order FIII > FI > FII, FIV. Furthermore, crystallization experiments from the gas phase and from solution by fast evaporation of different solvents were carried out. Fast evaporation of an ethanolic solution below 70 °C was identified as a reliable and convenient method to obtain the somewhat elusive FII in bulk quantities.