Expression and characterization of recombinant bifunctional enzymes with glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities
To balance the production and decomposition of reactive oxygen species, living organisms have generated antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are two important antioxidant enzymes. Apart from their catalytic functions, they protect each other, resulting in more efficient removal of reactive oxygen species, protection of cells against injury, and maintenance of the normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion (O2•−) to oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is then detoxified to water by GPx. In this study, human GPx1Ser and the Alvinella pompejana SOD (ApSOD) gene were used to design and generate several recombinant proteins with both GPx and SOD activities by combining traditional fusion protein technology, a cysteine auxotrophic expression system, and a single protein production (SPP) system. Among the fusion proteins, Se-hGPx1Ser-L-ApSOD exhibited the highest SOD and GPx activities. Additional research was conducted to better understand the properties of Se-hGPx1Ser-L-ApSOD. The synergism of Se-hGPx1Ser-L-ApSOD was evaluated by using an in vitro model. This research may facilitate future studies on the cooperation and catalytic mechanisms of GPx and SOD. We believe that the bifunctional enzyme has potential applications as a potent antioxidant.