Mutation in IL36RN impairs the processing and regulatory function of the interleukin-36-receptor antagonist and is associated with DITRA syndrome.
The identification of loss-of-function mutations of the IL36RN gene encoding the interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) in generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) emphasized the key role of this pathway in skin innate immunity and systemic inflammation. It has been previously shown in vitro that removal of the N-terminal amino acid IL36Ra (M1) is critical to its biological activity, but the in vivo contribution of this processing remains unknown. We report herein a new homozygous (c4G>T, pV2F) missense IL36RN mutation segregating in a family with three GPP-affected patients. The V2F mutation does not alter IL-36Ra protein expression but was devoid of any antagonist activity. Mass spectrometry showed that the V2F IL-36Ra mutant retains its first N-terminal methionine. These results provide the first in vivo demonstration that removal of N-terminal methionine of native IL-36Ra is a mandatory step to reach optimal antagonist activity and to prevent sustained skin and systemic inflammation in humans.