Prognostic value of clinical, echocardiographic and angiographic indicators in patients with large anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction as a first acute coronary event

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Abstract

Background

The risk of death in patients affected by ST-elevation segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) is well known, but more data are required to define the in-hospital mortality in special subsets. We sought to assess the prognostic value of indicators in patients with large anterior STEMI as a first acute coronary event, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP).

Methods and results

We evaluated 48 consecutive large anterior STEMI patients admitted as first acute coronary event, undergoing in acute phase both PCI and IABP. Patient demographics, clinical, noninvasive and invasive findings, together with in-hospital complications, were collected. Moreover, findings obtained after a 24-month follow-up were reported. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, whereas the secondary endpoints were out of hospital mortality, rehospitalization for heart failure or reinfarction, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class at least 2 at follow-up visit. The univariate analysis showed a significant association with symptom to balloon, left anterior descending coronary artery, myocardial blush grade, and wall motion score index. Results of the multivariable analysis revealed the strongest predictive power for in-hospital mortality of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (odds ratio: 6.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–67.7) and of myocardial blush grade 0–1 (odds ratio: 5.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–38.8). In-hospital death occurred in 13 patients (27% of total cases), whereas, at follow-up, the mean of survival was 66.7 ± 7.0%.

Conclusion

The patients with large anterior STEMI as a first acute coronary event, undergoing PCI and IABP, had a very high in-hospital mortality, whereas the mortality rate over the follow-up period was lower. The involvement of a large territory at risk and the ineffective treatment in terms of myocardial reperfusion were the main predictors of in-hospital mortality.

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