Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche. P. aeruginosa urinary tract infections are highly antibiotic resistant and require costly and intensive treatment. By understanding the infection dynamics of this organism within this specific niche, we may be able to identify novel therapeutic strategies to enhance the use of existing antibiotics.