A human challenge model for respiratory syncytial virus kinetics, the pharmacological effect of a novel fusion inhibitor, and the modelling of symptoms scores
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections, and is a major cause of hospital admissions and death in young children. Limited treatments currently exist that can prevent or minimise exacerbation of the disease. The aims of this work were: 1) to develop a population pharmacodynamic model to describe RSV kinetics (RSVK) in nasal lavage, 2) evaluate the impact of an investigational fusion inhibitor, JNJ-53718678, on RSVK, and 3) determine the relationship between RSVK and symptoms scores. The best model to fit the RSVK data was a target-cell limited viral kinetics model previously developed for influenza A infections (Baccam et al., 2006), which included a series of compartments for infected, non-producing and infected, and producing cell populations. The model was adapted to account for longer incubation times seen in RSV, by including 4 additional transit compartments, with the virus elimination rate constant and initial number of target cells fixed to literature values to ensure model parameter identifiability. Between-subject variability was included on the infection rate constant and virus production rate constant. The effect of JNJ-53718678 on RSVK was best described by a non-dose dependent transformation of the infectious virions into a non-infectious state, with a proportional odds model successfully describing symptoms scores, using individual model predicted viral loads as predictor.