Effects of dietary red yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) on production performance and egg quality of laying hens

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During six decades, the poultry industry has paid its attention on several aspects, such as genetics, nutrition and management to improve growth and egg production. However, as recent raising awareness about “healthy consumption products,” it must focus on dealing with public concern for environment and food safety (Ghasemian & Jahanian, 2016). It is well established that chicken eggs are good source of protein and essential nutrients contents for humans (López‐Fandiño, Recio, & Ramos, 2007). However, eggs have been identified as main dietary cholesterol source, which contain an approximately of 180–250 mg (Elkin, 2009). Therefore, it was recommended to consume less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day to prevent elevation in blood cholesterol and reduce risk of coronary heart disease (Weggemans, Zock, & Katan, 2001). Antibiotics affect microflora by altering the metabolism of gut microbiota and inhibiting their growth (Onifade & Babatunde, 1996). However, antibiotics have side effects such as residues in animal tissues, allergies and genotoxicity (Ghasemian & Jahanian, 2016). In addition, it has been reported that feed antibiotics can diffuse into the egg via the blood flow and accumulate in the yolk (Filson, Weiser, Meredith, & Winter, 1965). Therefore, a friendly approach with the use of natural products to reduce the cholesterol content in egg yolk and as alternative sources of antibiotics should be developed (Zhao et al., 2013).
Yeast products have been recently gained great attention in poultry industry as a feed additive after the ban on using of antibiotic growth promoters in the European (Yalcin et al., 2015). Yeasts with great amount of enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients have been demonstrated to improve growth rate, feed efficiency, egg production and reproduction (Yalcin, Ozsoy, Erol, & Yalcin, 2008), reduce abdominal fat content, improve internal egg quality and increase organic phosphorus utilization in laying hens (Wang, Shih, Chen, & Wang, 2015). Furthermore, they were predominantly originated source of mannan‐oligosaccharides (MOS), which have been considered as the best alternatives for antibiotics in poultry feeds (Ferket, Parks, & Grimes, 2002). Additionally, the major components of yeast cell wall viz. mannan‐oligosaccharides and ß‐glucan have been proved to lower the cholesterol concentration in egg yolk and serum in laying hen (Yalcin, Yalcin, Cakin, Eltan, & Dagasan, 2010). Red yeast, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, has been reported as potential source of carotenoids (Valduga et al., 2014). These carotenoids act as vitamin A precursors, possess antioxidant properties and exhibit properties deemed protective against a range of diseases (Frengova & Beshkova, 2009). However, there is little available information about the effects of red yeast on production performance and egg quality of laying hens. To our best knowledge, this is the first study about dietary Sporidiobolus pararoseus supplementation on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens.
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