Cardiac and Metabolic Variables in Obese Dogs.
The etiology of obesity-related cardiac dysfunction (ORCD) is linked to metabolic syndrome in people. Studies have indicated that obese dogs have components of metabolic syndrome, warranting evaluation for ORCD in obese dogs.OBJECTIVES
To evaluate cardiac structure and function and metabolic variables in obese dogs compared to ideal weight dogs.ANIMALS
Forty-six healthy, small-breed (<25 pounds), obese dogs (n = 29) compared to ideal weight dogs (n = 17).METHODS
A cross-sectional study of cardiac structure and function by standard and strain echocardiographic measurements and quantification of serum metabolic variables (insulin:glucose ratios, lipid analysis, adiponectin, inflammatory markers).RESULTS
Compared to the ideal weight controls, obese dogs had cardiac changes characterized by an increased interventricular septal width in diastole to left ventricular internal dimension in diastole ratio, decreased ratios of peak early to peak late left ventricular inflow velocities, and ratios of peak early to peak late mitral annular tissue velocities, and increased fractional shortening and ejection fraction percentages. The left ventricular posterior wall width in diastole to left ventricular internal dimension in diastole ratios were not significantly different between groups. Systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between groups. Obese dogs had metabolic derangements characterized by increased insulin:glucose ratios, dyslipidemias with increased cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, decreased adiponectin concentrations, and increased concentrations of interleukin 8 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine-like inflammatory cytokines.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE
Compared to ideal weight controls, obese dogs have alterations in cardiac structure and function as well as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypoadiponectinemia, and increased concentrations of inflammatory markers. These findings warrant additional studies to investigate inflammation, dyslipidemia, and possibly systemic hypertension as potential contributing factors for altered cardiac function.