Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in 2 US Cities, 2012–2014

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Since 2011, in the United States, quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been recommended for boys aged 11 to 12 years, men through age 21, and men who have sex with men (MSM) through age 26. We assessed HPV vaccination coverage and factors associated with vaccination among young MSM (YMSM) and transgender women (TGW) in 2 cities.


During 2012–2014, 808 YMSM and TGW aged 18 to 26 years reported vaccination status in a self-administered computerized questionnaire at 3 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Los Angeles and Chicago. Associations with HPV vaccination were assessed using bivariate and multivariable models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


Few of the diverse participants (Hispanic/Latino, 38.0%; white, 27.0%; and black/African American, 17.9%) reported receiving 1 or more HPV vaccine doses (n = 111 [13.7%]) and even fewer reported 3 doses (n = 37 [4.6%]). A multivariable model found associations between vaccination and having a 4-year college degree or higher (aOR, 2.83; CI, 1.55–5.17) and self-reported STDs (aOR, 1.21; CI, 1.03–1.42). In a model including recommendation variables, the strongest predictor of vaccination was a health care provider recommendation (aOR, 11.85; CI, 6.70–20.98).


Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage was low among YMSM and TGW in this 2–US city study. Our findings suggest further efforts are needed to reach YMSM seeking care in STD clinics, increase strong recommendations from health care providers, and integrate HPV vaccination with other clinical services such as STD testing.

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