Multiorgan Failure Predicts Mortality in Emphysematous Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Systematic Analysis of the Literature
Emphysematous pancreatitis (EP) is a subtype of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) characterized by the presence of gas in and around the pancreas. Although investigators have studied prognostic factors in ANP, less is known about EP. We aimed to determine predictors of mortality and identify changes in management strategies for EP. A PubMed search was performed to identify EP cases. Data were gathered about patient demographics, clinical findings, laboratory results, radiological studies, procedures, outcomes, and mortality. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Including a case from our institution, the study cohort included 64 subjects. The overall mortality rate was 32.8% (21/64). On univariate analysis, age (P = 0.019), hypotension (P = 0.007), gas outside the pancreas on computed tomography imaging (P = 0.003), initial surgical evacuation (P = 0.007), and the development of multiorgan failure (P = 0.008) were associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, only the development of multiorgan failure was found to be an independent predictor of mortality (P = 0.039). The overall mortality rate of 32.8% for EP is similar to the mortality rates published for ANP. The development of multiorgan failure in EP is strongly associated with increased mortality. Percutaneous and endoscopic approaches have been replacing surgical interventions.