Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with a disproportionate increase in grade III obesity. Bariatric surgery offers an attractive option for sustained weight loss compared with traditional methods such as exercise and diet. Micronutrient deficiencies are common and clinically significant after bariatric surgery. These deficiencies are related to a combination of patient and surgical variables. A thorough understanding of specific micronutrient deficiencies is necessary for early recognition and optimal management. The purpose of this review is to describe indications, outcomes, and types of bariatric procedures, risk factors, and mechanisms for micronutrient deficiencies, as well as outline specific vitamin and trace element deficiencies after bariatric surgery.