Pulmonary Hypertension Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Heart Failure Hospitalization and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: The Jackson Heart Study

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Abstract

Background—

African Americans develop chronic kidney disease and pulmonary hypertension (PH) at disproportionately high rates. Little is known whether PH heightens the risk of heart failure (HF) admission or mortality among chronic kidney disease patients, including patients with non–end-stage renal disease.

Methods and Results—

We analyzed African Americans participants with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or urine albumin/creatinine >30 mg/g) and available echocardiogram-derived pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) from the Jackson Heart Study (N=408). We used Cox models to assess whether PH (PASP>35 mm Hg) was associated with higher rates of HF hospitalization and mortality. In a secondary, cross-sectional analysis, we examined the relationship between cystatin C (a marker of renal function) and PASP and potential mediators, including BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) and endothelin-1. In our cohort, the mean age was 63±13 years, 70% were female, 78% had hypertension, and 22% had PH. Eighty-five percent of the participants had an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min per 1.73 m2. During follow-up, 13% were hospitalized for HF and 27% died. After adjusting for potential confounders, including BNP, PH was found to be associated with HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–4.86) and the combined outcome of HF hospitalization or mortality (hazard ratio, 1.84; confidence interval, 1.09–3.10). Log cystatin C was directly associated with PASP (adjusted β =2.5 [95% confidence interval, 0.8–4.1] per standard deviation change in cystatin C). Mediation analysis showed that BNP and endothelin-1 explained 56% and 40%, respectively, of the indirect effects between cystatin C and PASP.

Conclusions—

Among African Americans with chronic kidney disease, PH, which is likely pulmonary venous hypertension, was associated with a higher risk of HF admission and mortality.

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