AbstractPurpose of review
To provide an overview of how genetic, serum, and urine biomarkers can help identify men at high risk for prostate cancer (PCa) and aggressive disease and men who would benefit from prostate biopsy.Recent findings
Screening for PCa is controversial because of concerns about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonlife-threatening tumors. Therefore, an approach to screening that includes a detailed family history with genetic testing of risk single nucleotide polymorphisms and high-penetrance genetic variants should be considered. After an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been confirmed, obtaining additional information (family history, biomarkers, and imaging) should be considered before recommending a prostate biopsy.Summary
There are now genetic tests that can help identify men who would benefit from PSA testing. Additional biomarker and imaging tests should be offered to those men who are confirmed to have elevated PSA values. These new biomarkers and imaging tests can improve the specificity of PSA testing while missing a small percentage of high-grade tumors. The path forward involves a multiparametric risk assessment based on clinical data and these new tests.