Trafficking and regulation of the NKCC2 cotransporter in the thick ascending limb

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The kidney Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is essential for urinary concentration and renal electrolyte handling. Loss of function mutations in the NKCC2 gene cause urinary salt and potassium wasting, whereas excessive NKCC2 function has been linked to high blood pressure. Loop diuretics, targeting the transporter, are instrumental for relieving edema or hypertension. This review focuses on intrinsic mechanisms regulating NKCC2 activity at the posttranslational level, namely its trafficking and phosphorylation.

Recent findings

Protein networks mediating cellular turnover of NKCC2 have recently received major attention. Several key components of its apical trafficking were identified, including respective chaperones, SNARE protein family members and raft-associated proteins. NKCC2 internalization has been characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinase and phosphatase pathways regulating NKCC2 activity have been clarified and links between NKCC2 phosphorylation and trafficking proposed. Constitutive and inducible NKCC2 trafficking and phosphorylation mechanisms have been specified with focus on endocrine control of thick ascending limb (TAL) function by vasopressin.

Summary

Proper NKCC2 trafficking and phosphorylation are critical to the TAL function in the physiological context of urinary concentration and extracellular volume regulation. Clarification of the underlying mechanisms and respective protein networks may open new therapeutic perspectives for better management of renal electrolyte disorders and blood pressure control.

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